Allergic asthma, rhinitis (hay fever), eczema, conjunctivitis, and even sticky ear symptoms can be caused by an allergy to house dust mites (HDM). These illnesses are common in children and can appear separately or together. Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to small bugs that usually live in dust. The most common signs of this allergy are those associated with hay fever, such as sneezing and a runny nose.
Additionally, many people with dust mite allergies experience asthma-like symptoms, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing. HDM is a major source of indoor aeroallergens and is linked to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and atopic eczema. The best way to treat allergic rhinitis is to avoid allergens first, followed by drug therapy and allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Appropriate pharmacotherapy includes antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids (ICS).
All of these treatments are effective and safe, but they have not been proven to change the course of allergic diseases related to HDM. Allergy tests can determine if house dust mites cause respiratory or dermatological symptoms. Unfortunately, the seriousness of dust mite allergy is often underestimated, leading to medical treatment not being sought. House dust mites belong to the Pyroglyphidae family and are mainly composed of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Euroglyphus maynei.
The prevalence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma, whose allergen is the house dust mite, has been increasing. The intestine of dust mites contains peptidase 1, which is one of the powerful digestive enzymes that persist in their fecal matter and is the main inducer of allergy. This increases epithelial permeability, allowing allergens from house dust mites to pass to antigen-presenting dendritic cells. If tests show that you're allergic to house dust mites, there are ways to reduce your immune system response.
Allergic reactions are dose-related, so the fewer dust mites you have in your home, the fewer respiratory or dermatological symptoms you'll have. The prognosis for dust mite allergy depends on the ability to identify dust mites as the source of allergic manifestations. Not only should you reduce the population of dust mites, but also take steps to remove their corpses and feces from your home. If you take steps to reduce the number of dust mites in your home, you can control your dust mite allergy.
However, there is no single, definitive sign that house dust mites trigger allergy symptoms in a person. The most effective intervention to treat dust mite allergy is primary prevention - avoidance of allergens. It's important to remember that dead dust mite droppings continue to cause allergic reactions. Dust mite allergy develops in childhood or adolescence, and most symptoms appear before the age of 20.
Some signs and symptoms of dust mite allergy, such as a runny nose or sneezing, are similar to those of the common cold.